Guru Gobind Singh was the Tenth Guru of the Sikhs. He was born in Patna, India, the son of the ninth Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. Guru Gobind Singh became the spiritual and temporal leader of the Sikhs on November 11, 1675, at the young age of nine years. He was renowned as a warrior, a poet, and a prophet. His establishment of the Khalsa (society of soldier-saints) is considered to be one of the most important events in the history of Sikhism.
He is fondly remembered by Sikhs as a defender of the faith and a champion of equality and justice. He is also known as the last human Sikh Guru who wrote the Dasam Granth and declared that henceforth the Guru Granth Sahib (Sikh Holy Book) would become the next permanent Sikh Guru.
Foundation of Khalsa Panth
Guru Gobind Singh is remembered for the formation of the Khalsa. This is a group into which committed Sikhs can be initiated through the Amrit Sanskar ceremony. It was formed in 1699 when many Sikhs were gathered to celebrate the festival of Vaisakhi. He was a man of great intellectual attainments. He was a linguist familiar with Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit as well as his native Punjabi. He further codified Sikh law, wrote martial poetry and music, and was the reputed author of the Sikh work called the Dasam Granth (“Tenth Volume”).
Guru Gobind Singh died in October 1708 at Nanded. On the evening of the same day he died, he was visited by two Pathans. One of the Pathans was commissioned by Wazir Khan to assassinate the Guru. Wazir Khan was afraid of the ongoing talks between Guru Gobind Singh and Bahadur Shah I. One of the Pathans (Bashal Beg) kept a vigil outside while the other Pathan (Jamshed Khan) entered his tent, while he was resting. The assailant stabbed the Guru twice, mortally wounding him. The Guru killed one assailant, while the other Pathan was caught and killed by the Sikhs. The wound was stitched the following day. Guru Gobind Singh, finding his end near, passed on spiritual Guruship to Adi Granth and corporal Guruship to Khalsa shortly before his death.