Mangalyaan was on an interplanetary mission. Its fuel ran out and its battery drained beyond the safe limit. It was launched in November 2013 and successfully entered Mars’ orbit in September 2014 in the first go. It was designed to function for 6 months but worked for a long 8 years before ‘retiring’. Before India’s Mangalyaan, only the US, Soviet Union, and Europe Space Agency had explored Mars.
What was the objective of Mangalyaan?
India’s Mangalyaan mission is aimed at studying the Martian atmosphere. Its objective is to explore Martian surface features, mineralogy, morphology, and atmosphere using indigenous scientific instruments. A crucial objective of MOM was to develop technologies required in planning, designing, managing, and operations an interplanetary mission.
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), commonly referred to as Mangalyaan-1, is a space probe launched by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) on November 5, 2013. The indigenously-built space probe, which is India’s first interplanetary mission, has been in the Martian orbit since September 24, 2014. The mission which is aimed at studying the Martian atmosphere helped the ISRO to enter the elite group of space agencies including the Soviet Space Program, NASA, and the European Space Agency to reach Mars. India is the first Asian nation to reach Mars orbit and the first in the world to achieve it on its first attempt.
Description Of MOM
MOM was launched aboard PSLV C-25, one of the world’s best and most reliable launch vehicles. The spacecraft is based on the modified I-1-K satellite bus of ISRO which proved its reliability over the years in similar missions like Chandrayaan-1, the IRS, and the INSAT series of satellites. It carried 850 kg of fuel and 5 science payloads including a Mars Color Camera which it has been using to study the Martian surface and atmosphere since entering orbit successfully.
The spacecraft is tracked by the Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN), located near Bengaluru and complemented by NASA-JPL’s Deep Space Network. MOM showcased India’s spacecraft building, rocket launch systems, and operational capabilities. The mission’s primary objective is to develop technologies required for planning, designing, management, and operations of an interplanetary mission.